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CYBER CRIMINOLOGY

Updated: Jun 16

Written by: Ms. Palak Tripathi and Mr. Abhishek Verma, C.M.P. Degree College, University of Allahabad, Prayagaraj

From young ones to old everyone is surrounded by some sort of internet system. Nowadays whenever anyone wants to talk, he or she talks using social media.

The Internet has widened it's grip over every person. Each and every person is on the web of internet.

It has become everyone’s need too. But before going into deep, let us understand the meaning of the term ‘CYBER’.

This term is an internet-related term. It is derived from a word ‘CYBERNETICS’ It is purely related to the characteristic culture of computers, information technology, and virtual reality.

Everybody’s need is cyber. Their connectivity is cyber. It has a wide network like a web. It is getting spread more and more.


CYBER AS A CRIME

No doubt it has spread a huge web. Many people use it whereas many misuse it too.

When the people misuse it, starts doing wrong activities then it is termed as a ‘CRIME’. So doing such activities using cyber which is not healthy for our environment, or which can have some ill-effect on any society , then it is known as ‘CYBER CRIME’.


Cyber Crimes can be defined as the unlawful acts where the computer is used either as a tool or a target both. It is a very general term that covers various crimes such as phishing, credit card, frauds, bank robbery, illegal downloading, scams cyber terrorism, child pornography, etc.

It shows a lot of inhumanity. It is a crime that is punishable under IPC.

Sometimes the cyber crime is cognizable other than the offences under sections 425 and 426 and also unde5r sections 463 and 465 which are non-cognizable.

Sometimes there are various hackers which come into play for commiting this crime. As we people use a lot of social media.

There are various social media such as WhatsApp, Instagram, Facebook etc. Sometimes the hackers use to hack the IDs and they misuse it then.

They misuse it in various ways. Sometimes by sending some unwanted messages on a side whereas sometimes absurd videos on the other side.

These crimes also happen through adventurous games also. As in the earlier year , a game named ‘BLUE WHALE’ had come. It had taken the lives of various children.

How heinous that game was! That game was an evil. It was also a part of cyber crime.

Sometimes bullying happen through these mediums too. It also comes under it.

Now a days, there are a number of cyber crimes taking place. The crimes such as pornography, child pornography is so evil.

How much bad impact it creates on anyone’s mental and physical health! This used to happen earlier also.

Earlier, when the technology was not so advanced still the crime was happening and the people also did not have that much amount of awareness too.

But the people of the present time have an ample amount of awareness regarding this crime and still, they use to commit it.

If there are some boons then there are many banes of cyber. The crimes happening around us is totally the part of the bane from it.


VARIOUS KINDS OF CYBER CRIMES

There are various kinds of cyber crimes such as unauthorized access and hacking, child pornography, pornography, web hijacking, cyber stalking,virus attacks etc.

Let us see one by one in detail.


1.Unauthorized access and hijacking

It means any kind of accessing without the name of the right owner. If anyone act of accessing is done without the permission of the legal owner, it is known as an unauthorized access.

If any act is done to break any kind of network then that is known as Hijacking.

These crimes are usually done by many hackers. Hackers contain their private computers and by using them they commit this crime.

Many of the hackers use to commit such crime for their monetary gain. They also use to stole credit cards for accessing it to take out all the money .

Government websites are the targeted ones.

There is a case of Pranshu S Raghuvansh vs Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology. In this case a proper enquiry was done and the act was made punishable.


2.Web Hijacking

It means taking forceful control on anyone’s else’s website. In this case the rightful owner of the website loses his control over his website and the contents in it.

There is a case of Stephen Koenig vs Arbitrator, in which the defendant was punished for hijacking under IT Act, 2000.


3. Pornography

This crime includes showing sexual acts in order to cause sexual excitement. When such an act is done against any person’s will, then it comes under the ambit of a crime.

Similarly there are many more crimes which comes under the ambit of cyber law.

There is a case of Bachpan Bachao and Ors. Vs Union of India . This case law purely talked about the cyber pornography and puts on an effort to prohibit it.


CYBER LAWS

These are the crimes which are increasing day by day. The use of internet has increased so much among the people. The increased use is the major reason behind it.

To cope up with these crimes related to internet, the Information Technology Act,2000 was enacted.

The punishments to these crimes is made punishable under this act. Some amendments also happened in IPC, 1860 to purview cyber crime.

The various offences which are made punishable under IT and Cyber laws are as follows:

Tampering with computer source documents is mentioned in Sec.65. Hacking is punishable under Sec.66, Sec 67B of the IT Act, 2000 makes viewing or downloading child pornography illegal.

As such there are so many sections for different cyber crimes.


STATISTICS

The stats of cyber crime has increased with the development of the technology.

If we look at the report of 2019, 43% of all nefarious online activities impacted small businesses. Giving a look at suffered by various organizations , 69% of the attacks were perpetrated by outsiders, 34% involved internal actors, 5% of them featured multiple parties, 2% involved partners.

If we talk about the year 2020, cyber security budgets have increased by almost 60%. By the end of 2020, security services are expected to account for 50% of cyber security budgets.


CONCLUSION

It is very truly said that “ONE OF THE MAIN CYBER RISKS IS TO THINK THAT THEY DON’T EXIST” .

These crimes exist. If we have an ample amount of use of cyber ,it has some misuses also.

It is both a boon and bane. That is why, Richard Clarke has given a statement that, “IF YOU SPEND MORE ON COFFEE THAN CYBER SECURITY YOU WILL BE HACKED”.

The statement very lucidly indicates to look at the security so that it can be boon for everyone.

As, it is a new generative crime and many people still do not know how to operate a system properly. So, it is very essential to understand the basics of modern cyber.

With the growing modernization, it is very important for everyone to walk with it.

It is very important to understand the types of crimes taking place. A deep study about it is very important.

Being alert is very important. Only having knowledge about of various crimes can let people help in curbing it.

We should understand the boons and banes of it and should work accordingly. So, for the development of our country and for its modernization it is most important to curb it.

Awareness should be spread widely.

Only these methods can help our country to be free of these crimes.

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