Unemployment: A Curse for the Nation
Written by: Priya Verma, Student, Chandigarh University
THE HARDEST WORK IN THE WORLD …
IS BEING OUT OF WORK …
From the word unemployment, we firstly imagine about joblessness in our nation and the question arises that is our nation developing ? Are there lack of jobs ? Why are people moving abroad to secure their jobs ? Are they capable enough to move to abroad ? If yes , why can’t they start up something productive so that the unemployment rate decreases . Why our nation is not yet developed ? Why government policies , provisions , rules are not being followed ? Is our nation seriously developing or its just so called developing ? There are many more questions revealing in our minds . So predominantly I’ll answer these questions through this article on the contemporary theme unemployment .
Unemployment is basically when someone is eagerly trying to find work woefully he can’t get the job . Unemployment has been generated from the contemporary themes revolving around our country like poverty , illiteracy ,caste based reservation system , violation of basic rights , and many more .
Unemployment is the primary theme from which our country is not developed . From the rapid growth of unemployment people are moving abroad to find the secured jobs . Due to rapidly growth of unemployment people are also affected by poverty, illiteracy , reservation system and much more.
From this we can justify that there are contemporary themes from which unemployment arises and also people who are not employed but still are stable are going abroad to secure their jobs . This Article will throw light on the contemporary themes revolving around our country .
Unemployment also known as joblessness . It is a situation when an individual is actively looking for a job but currently not engaged in job. An unemployed person is one who having potentialities and willingness to earn , but is unable to find remunerative work . It is basically lack of jobs in the nation even for those who have the ability or willingness to work at the prevailing wages .
In short we can say that the situation of non availability of work even though there is a desire to do it .
Unemployment is a contemporary theme which is revolving in our country from last decades . The main reasons for unemployment are also the contemporary themes which revolves around the nation like poverty , illiteracy , reservation system .
It is the situation when people are not able to afford the basic needs i.e. food, shelter , clothing , medication, and education .India is suffering from poverty with more than half of the population i.e. 37% in 2019 and 54.7 % in 2020 . When people in India can’t afford basic needs how can they be employed . Because if one is willing to work at a good wage rate needs to be educated which is the basic needs of human . Government makes many provisions and policies for the same . Are they regulated ? If yes why is the poverty rate rapidly increasing . Because of poverty people have no work, nothing to do and this has become the main reason for unemployment in India .
It is the situation when an individual is unable to read and write is known as illiteracy . In short lack of education is illiteracy . Education is the key component for being employed or engaged in any work . Article 21A of the Indian Constitution provides with free and compulsory education of all the children from six to fourteen years still the illiteracy rate is 37 % . Government makes rules, regulations, policies, provisions , but are they being regulated ? No , because if these were being regulated there was no scope for increasing the illiteracy rate , poverty rate , and much more . This is the main reason for unemployment in India .
RESERVATION SYSTEM :
It is the system in which population is being categorized into Schedule Caste (SC) , Schedule Tribes (ST) , and Other Backward Class (OBC ) . Only these people are getting importance . On the other hand there are general category people who are doing the most but not achieving nothing . This system violates Article 14 – 18 i.e. Right to Equality which states that every one is equal before law. Then why reservation ? This system reserves seats in government jobs , educational institutions only for SC’s , ST’s , and OBC’s whatever their rank is it may be very low they will achieve what they want . If government is making provisions for developing the nation , government should ban reservation system because it is ruining life of those individuals who are working hard to achieve their goals and want to do something in their life and are not able to do , and by this the suicides in the young generation is increasing . For eg . there are 2 candidates applied for a government post one is from SC and one is from general category . General category has passed with 87 % and Sc candidate passed with 51 % . The SC candidate will be selected for a particular post not the another one . If this system would be banned our country will be developed efficiently and effectively and this is the main reason for unemployment in India and suicides of young generation too.
NATURE OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN INDIA :
It is the unemployment in the urban areas .
Industrial unemployment :
It is the unemployment in the industrial sector . As the industrial growth in India is very low and people who were engaged in this sector is being unemployed .
Educated unemployment :
It is the situation in which educated individuals are not able to find work . This is because of over population and limited organizations in our nation .
It is the unemployment in rural areas .
Seasonal unemployment :
It is the situation in which people are engaged in work only for few months in a year and rest of the year they are unemployed .
It is a situation in which more people are engaged in work as required . This situation of unemployment is disguised unemployment .
ELEMENTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT :
There are three elements of unemployment :
CAPABLE OF WORKING : An individual should be capable enough to work .Firstly one should be mentally , physically , emotionally , and spiritually stable so that he can handle the work effectively and efficiently . If one is suffering from a disease how can he work ? And secondly one should be educated and must have the knowledge about the particular theme for which he has applied .
WILLING TO WORK : One is entitled to have interest in the particular concern for which he has applied . If there is no willingness to work , it will never be successful and the organization will also suffer from depletion .
EFFORTS TO FIND WORK : If one genuinely wants to be employed and is actively searching for a particular job and is capable enough to perform for a particular organization should be employed . But if one is sitting at home and wants a job without putting efforts , its obvious that he will never be employed .
VOILATION OF RIGHTS :
(ARTICLE 21 A )
RIGHT TO FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION :
Article 21 A of the Indian Constitution provides with the right to free and compulsory education from six to fourteen years of children . Education is the primary source through which employment can be generated . To reduce unemployment in India regulation of Article 21 A is necessary . In India illiteracy is the main cause for unemployment . Our future is our youth and if our youth is illiterate how will the nation develop ? Government also should take actions against the particular state or region where the provisions and policies are not regulated in an effective and efficiently . Education and employment go side by side as much as our education the employment we will achieve will be better . For eg. If two candidates one of Phd holder and another just passed the masters degree from the university it is obvious that the candidate who is a Phd holder must achieve some higher post than that of the other candidate who just passed masters degree from the university .
(ARTICLE 14-18 )
RIGHT TO EQUALITY :
Article 14-18 of the Indian Constitution deals with the Right to Equality which provides that each and every individual should be equal before law . But today the provisions deals with the reservation system in whole country . So is right to equality seriously regulated or its just for the sake of telling people . Why our system is so -called system ? Due to the reservation system people work hard and couldn’t achieve anything and all because of frustration commits suicides . Reservation should not be on the bases of caste system but on the bases of poverty and that also for a limited period of time . Because no provisions are being made for general category people . So is this equality ? I say no to this , because there are many more reasons due to which Right to Equality is being violated and the most common reason is caste based reservation in India . Due to reservations in India people who are not able to or willing to or has desire to work is currently working with no motive whereas on the other hand people who want to achieve something and is working on it is sitting at home . For eg . there are two candidates for a same government post one of them was from genera category and other from ST category. First candidate scored 88 % whereas other stood by 58% .Now you are thinking that the first candidate earned the post , but woefully, the other candidate of ST category earned that post . The We should raise our voice to government so that they make better provisions and regulate them effectively and efficiently . If not, our country will be developing from now to many decades and never would be developed .
TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT :
There are four types of unemployment in India :
Voluntary unemployment 2. Involuntary unemployment
Open unemployment 4. Hidden unemployment
Fictional unemployment a) Disguised unemployment
Cyclic unemployment b) Seasonal unemployment
Structural unemployment c) Underemployment
Voluntary Unemployment :
It is a situation when a person is unemployed because not due to unavailability of jobs but because of not being able to find employment of their own choice. For eg. If an individual wants to become a Chartered Accountant and he is working hard on it , he was also offered with a job in the private organization but he refused to work for the organization . Therefore this is the situation of voluntary unemployment .
Involuntary Unemployment :
It is a situation where an individual is willing to work at a prevailing wage rate but is not able to find work and is unemployed . For eg. If one wants to work for any organization at a prevailing wage rate but organization refuses to recruit the particular person is the situation of involuntary unemployment .
Open Unemployment :
It is a situation where people are willing to work at a prevailing wage rate but there is no work in the economy . They are capable of doing work and want to do work but there is no work for them . This situation is also known as naked unemployment . For eg . there are number of people who want to earn at the prevailing wage rate and are capable enough to work but they are unable to find work due to unavailability of jobs in the economy .
Frictional Unemployment :
It is a situation of unemployment which exists in any economy due to fluctuation of jobs . In short we can say that it is a situation where people move from one job to the other . For eg . a bachelor student working as a treasurer in a mall , he is in the final year and want to change the college as well as want to leave the job . This is the situation of frictional unemployment .
Cyclic Unemployment :
It is a situation of unemployment which is related to the cyclic trends of the industry . If an economy is doing well , cyclic unemployment will be at its lowest , and if economy is at its lowest , cyclic unemployment will be at its highest .
Structural unemployment :
It is a situation of unemployment which comes due to shift in an economy . It is a situation where jobs are available but it’s a mismatch between what an organization wants and what workers offer . For eg If an organization is in need for an employee who has completed MBA degree from recognized college and has achieved achievements in the academics , but workers offer the organization with law holder individual , this is a situation of structural unemployment .
Hidden Unemployment :
It is a situation where people are employed but working less than they could , or the jobs in which they are under skilled , these people are counted as unemployed , though they are employed . For eg if one is gold medallist in English and he is working as a peon in the university . Therefore , this situation of being employed is hidden unemployment .
Disguised Unemployment :
It is a situation where people are employed, but does not add to the productivity , which means productivity remains the same even in his absence . For eg If in a particular work only three individuals are requires and five individuals are being engaged , then the two people are disguised unemployed . This situation is of disguised unemployment .
Seasonal Unemployment :
It is a situation in which people are employed for certain period of time and gets unemployed for certain period of time . For eg agricultural labourers find work only during the season of sowing , harvesting , weeding , threshing , etc. This is because agriculture is seasonal in nature . This situation of being unemployed is seasonal unemployment .
It is a situation in which individuals are employed forcefully and are paid low paying wages or low skills jobs are granted to individuals as his capability . For eg If one is an electric engineer and one organization is forcing him to join the organization as a clerk , this is the situation in which an individual is underemployed .
PRESENT STATUS :
The growth of Indian economy is very slow . Due to this slow growth India is facing crises like poverty , inflation , illiteracy and much more , and due to these reasons unemployment also arises. The situation of India today is such that it is rising day by day .It was 6.86% in January 2019 and to 7. 7% in December .Rising of unemployment in India is because people are not ready to work in the small scale industries or cottage industries . Due to which small scale industries are vanishing , and the craft workers , handloom , designing , hand made items have no value in the market , due to which people are unemployed as they have no platform to exhibit their skilled or experienced work . The government of India should make a platform to exhibit their talent. This will reduce unemployment to an extend and also will give a rise to small scale industries .
Presently , India is a developing nation and the programmes should be adopted and regulated effectively and widely so that rapid growth of unemployment in India vanishes .India has lack of jobs and rapid increase of population due to which people are moving abroad to secure their jobs . Individuals needs and wants are more than their satisfaction level. An individual is never satisfied . For eg there are two individuals A and B, A is earning 1000 per month and B earning 10000 per month . Their needs will be according to their incomes and they will try to earn more as they are not satisfied the particular income . A’s wants and needs will be according to 1000 rupees and B’s needs will be according to 10000. Another reason for moving abroad is that in an individual skills are much more than their income. In India number of educated employees are more . This is because the educational institutions are rising but jobs are still lacking . We live in a society that marks are more important to us as compared to our talents . This is the biggest problem in India for unemployment . It is not necessary that every individual is good in academics , some are good in hand made craft, dancing, designing , sports etc . The platform should be provided to students so that they exhibit their talent and earn . This can remove unemployment to a greater extend .
UNEMPLOYMENT PROGRAMMES :
Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM )
This scheme was started in 1979. The main target of the scheme was to help the unemployed in rural areas . First priority was given to SC and ST women and youth of rural areas . In this scheme rural youth and women were given privilege to be employed . Youth and women were trained to set up their business , and these were trained under TRYSEM in 1996-97.
Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS)
This scheme was launched in 1994 . The main motive of this scheme was to remove seasonal unemployment in the rural areas. It provides 100 days employment to unskilled people in rural areas because of agriculture season . It aims to remove seasonal unemployment in India.
Prime Minister’s Rozgaar Yojana (PMRY)
This scheme was launched in 1993 . It is a self -employed scheme basically to educated unemployed youth in the country . It is meant for the families who are below poverty line or earn 25000 per annum . In this scheme unemployed youth is eligible to take a loan of one lakh to start a small business , to remove unemployment specially educated unemployed in the nation .
Minimum Needs Programmes (MNP)
This scheme was launched in the fifth plan to raise the standards of poor people in our country . This aims to provide basic education in primary section and adult education . This also provides rural health facilities , rural electrification , rural infrastructure , and urban slums .
National Rural Employment Programme (NREP )
This scheme was launched in 1980 . This scheme was to create employment opportunities by maintain community assets. In 1989, this scheme was merged with Jawahar Rozgaar Yogana (JRY) .
CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT:
There are many causes due to which unemployment arises :
Increase in population :
Constant increase in the population is the biggest problem in India . It is the main cause that there is unemployment in India .
Agriculture -Seasonal occupation
More than half of the population is dependent on agriculture , but agriculture in India is underdeveloped .It provides occupation only for a very few months and gives rise to unemployment in India .
Caste System :
In India caste system is the main cause of unemployment . The work is being prohibited for specific castes in some regions . In some cases deserving candidates are not given work but the candidates belonging to particular communities are provided with employment .
Slow economic growth :
Indian economy is underdeveloped . The role of economic growth is very slow . This slow growth of the economy fails to provide employment to the individuals and the unemployment arises .
Declining Small scale industries :
Industrial growth in India is very slow . This slow growth has adverse effect on small scale industries . The production of small scale is declining and the people who were engaged in these industries became unemployed and gave rise to unemployment .
Illiteracy means not educated . In India illiteracy rate is very high . This high rate of the uneducated people give rise to unemployment . Because people who are educated only they can be employed .
SUGGESTIONS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF UNEMPLOYMENT :
Change in industrial techniques :
In India the technique is capital intensive technique from which unemployment has rise . But if labour intensive technique will be used in India employment rate will rise and unemployment rate automatically starts declining .
Change policy regarding seasonal unemployment :
In India agriculture sector is main element of seasonal unemployment. To remove the seasonal unemployment in India agriculture should have multiple cropping instead of mono cropping. Side by side people must be encouraged in horticulture ,plantation , dairying , animal husbandry , fishing and should start cottage industries for the same .
Increase in production :
To increase employment or decrease unemployment in the nation it is essential to increase the production in agriculture sector , industrial sector . There should be development of small scale industries , cottage industries in our nation .
Population control :
Population is the main reason for unemployment in India . To control the population growth of population should be checked to reduce unemployment . Programmes , policies or provisions should be made to control population and should be regulated effectively and widely .
More importance to employment programmes :
To reduce unemployment in India plans should be made and those plans should be regulated effectively and efficiently . These plans should be based on agriculture , industries, roads , construction, irrigation and many more so that people who are not well educated should be employed .
Productive employment :
To remove unemployment government should make a policy in which people who are willing to work and are capable enough to work should be provided as these are the